How to overcome barriers to training transition


first of all

We are a company that develops and operates e-learning systems.
Therefore, it is important to understand how our systems are used, how we can use them to
The purpose of the workshop was to propose whether it is desirable to construct a training program.
In the study group.Introduction to Training and Development: Theory and Practice of Training Transfer (Diamond Inc.)for the text and use theHow to overcome the three barriers to training transitionThe style of the book is based on the theme of "The book is a book about the world.
This book is based on the theme of "How can we ensure that what we learn in training is put into practice in the workplace and leads to results? on the theme of
The book provides a well-balanced coverage of theories, methodologies, and practical examples to prevent "do-it-all" training.
In addition, the theme of the study session was the first author, Jun Nakahara's Rikkyo University School of Business Administration Blog of Jun Nakahara LaboratorytoThree barriers to training transitionI was inspired to set this up by the introduction about

Let's take a look at "How to Overcome the Three Barriers to Training Transition" based on the study session.

What is Training Transition?

First is an explanation of the term "training transfer", which is the core concept of this book.
What is "Transfer of Training"?
1. "Knowledge and skills learned in the training" are actually put into practice in the "work place" and (generalization)
2. to change the "behavior" of participants, to leave "results" in the field and in management (to contribute to management)
3. and the effect must be sustained (sustained)
The definition of "training transference" consists of the above three elements.
The training is meaningless if it does not change the participants' behavior and produce results in the workplace and management.
In order to achieve this, it is necessary to prevent "do-it-yourself training".
In order to prevent "do-it-yourself training," it is necessary that 1. the content of the training is actually put into practice in the workplace, and 2. the effects of the training are sustained.
In other words, the opposite of "do-it-all training" is "training that causes training transfer", which is the "ideal form of training".

Three barriers to training transition

But there are some barriers that can hinder training transfer.
In general, there are three barriers that inhibit training transition
 1. "Wall of Memory.
 2. "Barriers to Practice.
 3. "The Wall of Continuity.
The first "memory barrier" is the barrier of "I don't even remember anything I learned in the training.
It is easy to get stuck in the "memory barrier" if you just attend the training without any preparation or review.

The second "barrier to practice" is the barrier of "whether or not to really try what you learned in the training.
There are two kinds of problems with "whether or not to try.
It is a "participant motivation issue" and an "opportunity issue".
In order to enhance the former, it is important for instructors to encourage participants to increase their "self-efficacy" at the end of the training.
With regard to the latter "opportunity issue," the participant's supervisor needs to be notified and involved.
Sometimes one of the most influential factors in training transition is the attitude and support of the participant's supervisor and colleagues.
Be creative in involving your boss and colleagues well, especially your boss.

The third "barrier to continuity" is the barrier of "whether or not the practice started by what was learned in the training can be continued.
In order to continue the practice, you need to maintain motivation and create opportunities and work environments that allow you to continue.
In order to maintain motivation, it is necessary to introduce interval-based training and make training a two-tiered process.
In other words, it creates an environment where you have to do it.

I've introduced the three barriers and lightly touched on how to deal with them, but please see the end of the article for a summary of how to overcome them once again.

Kirkpatrick's "Four-Level Assessment Model.

Although the roots of training transference research and many previous studies on training transference are available, we will focus on the main themes.
It is widely known among practitioners or researchers that the American management scholar Dr. Kirkpatrick
This is the Four-Level Assessment Model, a model of educational assessment method proposed in 1959.
The evaluation model has the following four levels.

Level 1: Reaction
Level 2: Learning
Level 3: Behavior
Level 4: Results

The following is a summary of the content of Level 1: Response to Level 4: Outcome.
The Level 1 response is a questionnaire-based evaluation of the participants' impressions of the training, mainly measuring their satisfaction and self-efficacy.
Level 2 learning is designed to "consolidate knowledge and skills" and is assessed by means of confirmation tests and role-plays.
Level 3 behaviors measure "transfer of learning and behavioral changes in the workplace" and are assessed through questionnaires, interviews, and behavioral observations.
Level 4 outcomes measure "business impact" and are assessed in terms of sales, profits, and retirement rates.

Whereas the previous training evaluation was up to Level 1 response and Level 2 learning
Kirkpatrick's four-level assessment extends to Level 3 behaviors and Level 4 outcomes.
Behavioral change and results can be achieved bytrainee transferSo...
For this four-level evaluationThe germination of the concept of "training transferYou can see the

Measurement diagram of training transition

Next, let's look at the measurement diagram of the training transition.
The vertical axis shows the degree of control of the training implementer, and the horizontal axis shows the influence of the evaluation on the
There is a two-axis plane that takes the number of factors that give
Level 1: Response" and "Level 2: Learning," which have fewer evaluation items, are highly controlled by the trainer, while "Level 3: Action" and "Level 4: Outcome," which have more evaluation items, are less controlled.
You will find it difficult.
It can be read from the graph that Level 3 behavior is the bridge between "Level 4: Achievement" and "Level 1: Reaction" and "Level 2: Learning," which are the most complex evaluation items.
In other words.The most important success factor in training transition is the level 3 behaviorIt can be said to be

transfer matrix

We will now look at measures to promote training transition.
The transition matrix below is a table of impact and use for training transition.
If you look at this table, you can see that the part circled in red, the manager (supervisor) has a high degree of influence before and after the training. You can also see that the degree of use (encouragement) is insufficient for this.
One of the problems with the "barriers to practice" is that it's important to get your boss involved to overcome the "opportunity problem.Three barriers to training the section of
I stated.
From this transfer matrix, to facilitate training transfer.Involving your supervisor.howimportantYou can understand why.

How to overcome the three barriers to training transition

The following table of measures to promote training transfer is like a summary of this book, Part 1: History, Theoretical Framework, and Practical Measures of Training Transfer.

From this table, we can see that the currentThe following gives some conclusions about "How to overcome the three barriers to training transition.

1. how to overcome the memory barrier
Inverted learning : Through prior assignments Inputs are given, and during the training, confirmation tests and exercises such as application problems are given.
Active learning: Interactive, learner-participatory training that strongly impresses the training content
Interval-type training : Two-tiered training, such as re-training.

2. how to overcome barriers to practice
Involving workplace managers: Motivating participants through dialogue, creating a workplace that creates opportunities for utilization, etc.
Action Learning :Training to solve problems in the field
Encouragement by lecturers: Clear goal setting, enhancing self-efficacy of participants, telephone coaching, etc.

3. How to overcome the barriers to continuity
Interval training: Create a two-tiered approach to training and create a situation where you have no choice but to do it.
Involving workplace managers: Motivating participants through dialogue, creating a workplace that creates opportunities for utilization, etc.
Encouragement by lecturers: Clear goal setting, enhancing self-efficacy of participants, telephone coaching, etc.


So far, I've run through the contents of the study session.
We've been reading this book on the subject of "How to Overcome the Three Barriers to Training Transference," but the truth is, when it comes to overcoming the three barriers
Please note that it is not possible to distinguish between the three groups of training transfer promotion measures, and that the descriptions are based on arbitrary judgment.

If you want to know more systematically, please refer to Part 1 of this book, "History, theoretical framework, and practical measures of training transfer.
In addition, in the second part of the book, there is a section on "Practical Examples of Training Transfer. I was strongly impressed by the case of FANCL as a practical example.
The keywords of FANCL's case study are "flipped learning" and "in-house training," but the company also uses prep videos that introduce microlearning before training and
During training, we use many of the latest training methods, including interactive training through active learning.
One of the most noteworthy features of the program is the inclusion of a four-step model for measuring training transition in the post-training survey.
Kirkpatrick's four-step model is the origin of the concept of "training transfer", so we can use the four-step model as a questionnaire to measure training transfer.
There's no reason not to take it in.

Now, currently, society is The Age of VUCAVUCA is a term coined from the initial letters of Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity, and Ambiguity to describe a social situation in which it is extremely difficult to predict the future.
In these volatile and uncertain times, only companies that constantly update their products and services will be able to survive.
In order to do so, we need to rethink the significance of training. Gone are the days when it was okay to do "do-it-all" or "recreational" training.
Do you remember when the definition of training transfer had the element of "contributing to management"? Training is meaningless if it doesn't produce results.
In order to achieve these results, why don't you pick up this book and learn how training and organizational management should be?

works cited

Introduction to Training and Development: Theory and Practice of Training Transfer (Diamond Inc.)
New Book "Introduction to Training and Development - Theory and Practice of Training Transfer"! |
How to link "training" to post-employment success? Transfer of Training: Learning the Power of Training